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Empire State Building



The highlight

This building's Art Deco architecture, height and observation decks have made it a cult attraction. Four million visitors from all over the world visit the building's 85th and 102nd-floor observation decks The observatory indoor on the 80th level was inaugurated in the year 2019. The Empire State Building is an American iconic cultural landmark and has been featured in over 250 television shows and films since the movie King Kong was released in. The building's dimensions have been a standard definition of the length and height of all other buildings.

As a iconic symbol for New York City, the building was named an one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. It was as the first one on American Institute of Architects"List of America's Most Admired Architecture in 2007. Furthermore the Empire State Building and its ground floor interior were declared as city landmarks through the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in the year 1980 They were also placed on the National Register of Historic Places as an National Historic Landmark in 1986.

It is the Empire State Building It is situated on the west end of Fifth Avenue in Manhattan located situated between 33rd Street to the south and 34th Street to the north.Tenants access the building via an Art Deco lobby located at 350 Fifth Avenue. The observatories' visitors can access the entrance on West 34th Street; prior to August the year 2018, visitors could enter via to the Fifth Avenue lobby.Although it is physically located in South Midtown,it is a mixed residential and commercial area, the building is so massive that it has its own ZIP code of 10118. As of 2012, it was the only building located in New York City that have its specific ZIP codes.

 The interior

The area around areas around Empire State Building is also home to several other important places of interest, such as Macy's located at Herald Square on Sixth Avenue and 34th Street,Koreatown located on 32nd Street located between Madison and Sixth Avenues,Penn Station and Madison Square Garden located on Seventh Avenue between 32nd and 34th Streets, and the Flower District on 28th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues.The closest New York City Subway stations are 34th Street Penn Station at Seventh Avenue, two blocks west; 34th street-Herald Square One block to the west as well as 33rd Street at Park Avenue Two blocks east.[dThere's an PATH station between 33rd Street and Sixth Avenue.

The east side on the eastern side of the Empire State Building is Murray Hill, which is a community that has an array of commercial, residential and entertainment activity.The block that is directly to the northeast houses the B. Altman and Company Building, which houses the City University of New York's Graduate Center as well as it is the Demarest Building is located directly in Fifth Avenue to the east.

The property was the property of John Jacob Astor of the well-known Astor family who been the owner since the mid-1820s.It was in 1893 that John Jacob Astor Sr.'s grandson William Waldorf Astor opened the Waldorf Hotel on the site,four years later, his cousin John Jacob Astor IV, established the sixteen-story Astoria Hotel on the adjacent site.The two sections of the Waldorf Astoria hotel comprised 1300 rooms which made it the biggest hotel of its kind in the world at the time.

Following the death of its founder proprietor, George Boldt, in the beginning of 1918 the lease for the hotel was bought from Thomas Coleman du Pont.In during the 20th century, the historic Waldorf-Astoria was beginning to look outdated, and the elegant social scene in New York had moved much further south than the 34th Street.

In the late 1920s, the Astor family decided to construct an alternative hotel uptown,and they transferred the hotel for sale to Bethlehem Engineering Corporation in 1928 for between $14 and 16 million.The hotel was shut down within a short time on the 3rd of May 1929.

The Observation decks

The site was formerly the property of John Jacob Astor of the famous Astor family. They owned the property from the mid-1820s onwards. It was in 1893 that John Jacob Astor Sr.'s grandson William Waldorf Astor opened the Waldorf Hotel on the site,Four years after, his cousin, John Jacob Astor IV, inaugurated the sixteen-story Astoria Hotel on an adjacent site. Both parts of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel had 1300 rooms which made it the biggest Hotel in the world in that period.

Following the death of its founder, George Boldt, in the beginning of 1918 the lease for the hotel was bought through Thomas Coleman du Pont. In in the early 1920s, historic Waldorf-Astoria was becoming outdated, and the upscale social scene that was typical of New York had moved much further to the north, as 34th Street. Astor Family decided to construct another hotel in the city,and they it was sold for sale to Bethlehem Engineering Corporation in 1928 for between $14 and 16 million. The hotel shut down within a short time on the 3rd of May 1929.

On June 20 the tower's steel structure had reached the 26th floor and, by July 27 half of the structure's steel was completed Starrett Bros. and Eken set out to construct one floor per day to accelerate the construction process, which they had almost achieved by building 4+1/2 stories a week. prior to that the fastest rate in construction of a structure with a similar height was three stories per week.

As construction progressed it was revealed that the final designs for floor plans were developed from the base as in contrast to the original layout, which was constructed from the top down). The floors were still waiting for final approval, with a number of orders made in the space of an hour after the design being approved. On the 10th of September the day that steelwork was close to close to completion, Smith laid the building's cornerstone in a ceremony that was which was attended by a large crowd.

The stone contained a box with contemporary artifacts including the previous day's New York Times, a U.S. currency set containing all denominations of notes and coins minted in 1930, a history of the site and building, and photographs of the people involved in construction. The steel structure was topped out at 1,048 feet (319 m) on September 19, twelve days ahead of schedule and 23 weeks after the start of construction. Workers raised a flag atop the 86th floor to signify this milestone

According to the original plans in the initial plans, according to the original plan, the Empire State building's the spire was envisioned to function as intended to be an airship docking station. Raskob along with Smith had suggested an office for ticketing and waiting rooms for passengers on the 86th floor and the airships themselves would be connected to the spire on the same level as its 106th floor. lift could transport passengers from the 101st floor up to the 86th [gafter they been checked in at the 86th level, following which the passengers would have to climb up a ladder to get on the airship.

The plan was, however, unpractical and risky because of the massive upward thrusts generated by the structure itself, the winds that swept across Manhattan, and the spires of the nearby skyscrapers. Additionally in the event that the airship could successfully traverse all these obstacles its crew would need to disperse some ballast, dropping water on the streets below to keep the structure stable and secure the nose of the craft to the spire without ropes to secure the rear end of the craft.September 15 1931, a small commercial United States Navy airship circled 25 times at 45 miles per hour (72 kilometers/hour) winds. The craft tried to make a docking at the spire but the ballast fell out into the spire, and it was shaken by erratic eddies.The disaster was the catalyst for a plan to transform the spire of the building in an airship terminal but one blimp managed to deliver a single newspaper delivery afterward.

The New York Skyride

On the 28th of July 1945 the B-25 Mitchell bomber crashed into the north wall of the Empire State Building, between the 80th and 79th floor. One engine completely destroyed the structure and crashed into the block next to it, while the other engine and a portion of the landing gear fell into the elevator shaft. There were 14 injured in the accident but the building survived major damage and opened two days later.

The steel frame that was riveted to the building was intended to handle all the building's gravitational forces and wind loads.The amount of steel used in the construction of the building resulted in the structure being extremely rigid when as compared to other skyscrapers with the structural rigidity of 42 pounds per square foot (2.0 kPa) in comparison to the Willis Tower's 33lbs per square foot (1.6 kPa) and the John Hancock Center's 26lbs per square foot (1.2 kPa). publication in December 1930 of Popular Mechanics estimated that a building of the Empire State's size will still stand even after the force that was 50 short tonnes (45 long tons). The Empire State's dimensions are based on

 

Utilities are grouped in a central shaft. On the 6th through 86th stories, the central shaft is surrounded by a main corridor on all four sides. Per the final specifications of the building, the corridor is surrounded in turn by office space 28 feet (8.5 m) deep, maximizing office space at a time before air conditioning became commonplace. Each of the floors has 210 structural columns that pass through it, which provide structural stability, but limits the amount of open space on these floors.[53] However, the relative dearth of stone in the building allows for more space overall, with a 1:200 stone-to-building ratio in the Empire State compared to a 1:50 ratio in similar buildings.

 



 

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